The Link() Function Of Os Module In Python


  • A file name gives an identity to some contents present in the disk. Through file names the disk contents are organised in meaningful and logical chunks. A hard link is another reference to the disk contents(i.e.,an already existing file) similar to a file name.

  • Hard links have limitations that include:

    • They can not point to a directory

    • They can not point to files in another file system

  • When a hard link is created the operating system increases its link count to the file(i.e, contents).

  • When any of the links is deleted the link count is decreased. The file remains in the file system till all the hard links are deleted.

  • A soft link is a special file that points to an existing file. Soft links are popularly known as symbolic links. When the original file is deleted the soft link still points to the non-existing file.

  • A soft link can point to a directory. It can also point to a file or directory in another file system.

  • The function creates a hard link to an existing file.


src – The path of the file for which the hard link is to be created(i.e, source path)

dst – The path of the hard link(i.e., destination path)

src_dir_fd – If provided, the source path is considered relative to the directory specified by this descriptor

dst_dir_fd – If provided, the destination path is considered relative to the directory specified by this descriptor

follow_symlinks – When the source path points to a symbolic link, the flag follow_symlinks directs whether to resolve the actual file pointed to or to stop with the symbolic link


# Example Python program that creates a hard link
# to a file using the function

import os

filePath = "./Rain.txt"
linkName = "RainLink"

# Create a hard link, linkName)

# Print the directory contents


['songs', 'test', 'RainLink', 'contents.txt', 'AntAndGrasshopper.txt', 'BaaBaa.txt', 'RowYourBoat.txt', 'Copy of BaaBaa.txt', 'Rain.txt', 'Wheels.txt', 'test.txt', 'OneTwoBuckle.txt']

Outout of ls -l:

-rwxr--r--  1 root1  wheel   148 May  5 23:21 AntAndGrasshopper.txt
-rw-r--r--@ 1 root1  wheel   170 May  4 21:06 BaaBaa.txt
-rwxr--r--  1 root1  wheel     0 May  4 21:13 Copy of BaaBaa.txt
-rwxr--r--  1 root1  wheel   132 May  5 23:25 OneTwoBuckle.txt
-rw-r--r--@ 2 root1  wheel    45 May  3 22:45 Rain.txt
-rw-r--r--@ 2 root1  wheel    45 May  3 22:45 RainLink
-rw-r--r--@ 1 root1  wheel   100 May  2 23:32 RowYourBoat.txt
-rw-r--r--@ 1 root1  wheel    40 May  2 20:50 Wheels.txt
-rw-r--r--@ 1 root1  wheel    38 Apr  3 19:59 contents.txt
drwxr-xr-x  9 root   wheel   288 May  6 13:42 songs


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